Impact of Agricultural Irrigated Land and Raw Material Import, Labor Force and Capital Formation on Rice Production: Evidence from the Malaysian Economy


  • Irwan Shah Zainal Abidin School of Economics, Finance and Banking, Universiti Utara Malaysia
  • Muhammad Haseeb Taylors Business School (TBS), Taylors University Malaysia
  • Rabiul Islam School of International Studies, Universiti Utara Malaysia


Rice production, agricultural irrigated land, agricultural raw material import, labor force, capital formation.


Rice production has recently become a global requirement due to its high demand, necessitating the attention of contemporary studies and regulators. Thus, the current research examines the impact on rice production in Malaysia of agricultural irrigated land, agricultural raw material imports, labor force, and capital formation. The present paper collected data for analysis from 1981 to 2020 using secondary data collection methods and the World Bank Indicators (WDI) and Statista databases. Additionally, the Augmented Dickey-Fuller test was used to determine stationarity, and the Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) model was used to analyze the association between the constructs. The findings indicate that irrigated agricultural acreage, agricultural raw material imports, labor force, and capital formation positively and substantially affect rice output in Malaysia. This study assists policymakers in formulating policies that promote high rice production through irrigated agricultural land, raw material imports, labor, and capital.