Cuadernos de Economía

ISSN : 0210-0266

The Impact of Knowledge-based Economy on the Economic Growth of Middle Eastern Countries

  • Tawfeeq Alghazali , College of Media, department of journalism/ The Islamic University in Najaf, Najaf, Iraq
  • Ahmed Qassem Ali Sharhan Al-Sudani , Al-Manara College for Medical Sciences/ (Maysan)/Iraq
  • Hasan Subhi Hussein Alabass , Department of Business management/ Al-Hadba University College/Iraq
  • Mohammed Kadhim Hawash , College of Administration and economics/ Al-Farahidi University/ Iraq
  • Saad Ghazi Talib , Law Department, Al-Mustaqbal University College, Babylon, Iraq
  • Muneam Hussein Ali , Al-Nisour University College/ Iraq
  • Tuqaa Abid Mohammad , Department of Dentistry, Al-Zahrawi University College, Karbala, Iraq
  • Yousif Dolab Yousif , Al-Esraa University College, Baghdad, Iraq
  • Mohammed Yousif Oudah Al- Muttar , Scientific Research Center, Al-Ayen University, Thi-Qar, Iraq


Knowledge-based economy, R&D expenditures, government education expenditures, labor force with advanced education, economic growth, Middle Eastern countries ,


Due to environmental unsustainability and a lack of research and development (R&D) and training and education expenditures, countries' economic growth (EG) has recently encountered several obstacles. These difficulties require the attention of researchers. This study evaluates the impact of the knowledge-based economy (R&D expenditures, government education expenditures, and highly educated workforce) on the EG of Middle Eastern nations. The impact of control variables such as population increase and industrialisation on EG was also analyzed. From 2006 through 2020, the article extracts secondary data from World Development Indicators (WDI). The relationship between variables was examined using the fixed effect model (FEM) and the robust standard error approach. Results demonstrated that R&D spending, government education expenditures, labor force with advanced education, population growth, and industrialization have a favorable and significant effect on the economic growth of Middle Eastern nations. The article assists policymakers in formulating policies for enhancing EG by increasing the government's budget for R&D, training, and education.