Growth Differences Between Former Colonies
- Bashir Ahmad , Faculty of Business and Management, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia
- Mohd Yusof Saari , School of Business and Economics, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Malaysia
- Azali Mohamed , Universiti Keusahawanan Koperasi Malaysia, Malaysia
- Muzafar Shah Habibullah , Putra Business School, Malaysia
- Baharom Abd Hamid , INCEIF – The Global University of Islamic Finance, Malaysia
GMM, economic growth, colonization, macroeconomic variables, institutional variables ,
The objective of this study are to examine the impact of colonization on former colonies on their economic growth performances. The relationship between economic growth and selected independents variables are discussed covering 72 former colonies for the period of 1995 to 2015. The objective is to investigate the determinants of growth in former colonies colonized by four former conquerors namely Spain, France, The United Kingdom and The Soviet Union (Russian Federation). To achieve this objectives, we employed Generalized Method of Moment (GMM) estimator popularized by Arellano and Bond (1991) and Blundell and Bond (1998) and the independent variables of the estimation to achieve the targeted objectives, are the control variables of growth gross fixed capital formation (GFCF), as a proxy for capital and total population (TPOP) as a proxy for labor. This study also uses other independent variables such as length of colonial period (COLOH) which is the focus variable, domestic credit to private sector (DCPS), trade openness (TOP), foreign direct investment (FDI) and a couple of institutional qualities representing variables such political rights (PR) and civil liberties (CL). The results are quite consistent and robust - colonization is positive and highly significant implying that colonization indeed has a positive impact on the colonized countries, though the masters are perceived as parasites. They also prepare the right infrastructures that could enable the colonized countries to grow economically. As for the other variables including the control variables population, domestic credit to private, trade openness, and gross fixed capital formation are also positive and significantly related.